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W & 


Volume one Issue one 

Copyright Florida Presbyterian College Student Association 

1970 , 

Linda Bo Jennings Jeff Weir Rod Dunck David Wise 

Robby Barnes Michael Boggs Leilani Bost Jon Brannen 

Ingrid Bredenburg Sherry Coogle Will Crocker Betsy Dean 

and Steve Rick DelGreco Paul Haviland John McEwan 

Melanie Murray Tracy Prima Bill Rasch Watson Riddle 

Judy Schwartz Sylvia Schwintzer Ward Shelley Bob 

Tomasello Dean Tudor Bob Tumbelston 

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W .-" 

LINDA: I wanted to talk about education and 
FPC. Mike Boggs gave me some questions last 
night because he's very upset He thinks that 
both of you profess one thing and operate in 
a contrary manner; that you profess a 
progressive education involved with society 
and then hold classes like Literary Criticism 
yesterday, which was very esoteric. So what 
kind of classes can be run other than 
classroom classes? Other than sitting around 
talking about books, old things, dead things? 
HEEREMA: First of all, he's assuming that 
books are dead and secondly, he's defining a 
certain part of reality which I really don't 
know exists or not. One could ask, "Will the 
real world please stand up?" If he wants to 
talk about reality, my whole life has been 
spent in academic environments, since I was 
five years old, so you could take the track 
that when I'm speaking in my classes and I'm 
relevant to what is my world. But more 
important than that is the crisis that we are 
going through in higher education, a crisis we 
must recognize. There are many forms of 
education, institutions of higher learning 
dealing with one aspect of education. They 
don't deal with the totality of education. 
Now, whether or not they should deal with 
the whole thing is a different question. But at 
the present time institutions of higher 
learning are institutions set up to very 
efficiently deal with one, and only one, aspect 
of education; that is the aspect dealing with 
the mind, and setting the student aside from 
society for a brief period of time, four years, 
and developing his "tools," of analysis etc. Of 
course, this is the whole thing that's being 
challenged now. 

LINDA: Aren't the abolishing of the language 
requirement and things like that a step away 
from the traditional type of institution? 
DETWEILER: Yeah. I think Boggs is right in 
his accusation, largely, but there is another 
aspect to it. We're groping, I think, for new 
kinds of teaching and learning, inside and out 
of classrooms, and we don't really know 
where we're going, so that you can have a 
class like yesterday which gets out of hand in 

terms of esoteric statements and discussions. 
In fact, I would say we are pretty fortunate if 
about a quarter to a third of the classes in 
each semester turn out to be exciting and 
meaningful. That, for one. For another, as 
Doug says, you've got a responsibility to the 
existing structure, so that at the same time 
that you are trying to experiment and are 
groping at the fringes for new kinds of 
methods and structures of education, you are 
also trying to serve the institutions you've 
got, in the traditional sense, by presenting 
enough old fashioned hard core knowledge to 
give the student who wants and needs that 
sort of thing his money's worth. And you're 
also doing your job by the administration, 
fulfilling your contract, and that sort of thing. 
HEEREMA: We also have to look at this in 
perspective, too. What has happened is that 
the old style of educaton, through such forms 
as lecturing, was practically the only way of 
communication between the professor and 
the student, when the university was being 
developed. Now there are many different 
types of communication; there's all sorts of 
mass media. This does not mean that the 
lecture has suddenly become archaic and 
obsolete; it means there are other forms, 
alternatives to the lecture. I think we go a 
little bit too far when people talk about 
books and lectures as old fashioned and 
obsolete; what has actually happened is that 
they mean there are other alternatives, and 
our failing is not that we haven't thrown off 
the lecture, but that we haven't employed 
enough of these alternative means. But this 
takes time to really develop. My education 
was all in the form of lectures and books. 
That's how I'm brought up, that's what I'm 
used to, that's what turns me on. It takes a 
tremendous amount of energy and time 
before I know even how to use these new 
media. If I defend myself at all against these 
criticisms, I would say give me time to grow 
up and to learn how to use these things. 
DETWEILER: Right. The danger too with the 
lecture is that it's coming into disrepute now. 
People disregard all lectures and lecturers, but 

I think it remains an effective art when you 
do it well. Of course, not many people can. I 
think one of the things that causes Core to 
often fall flat is that we don't have enough 
good lecturers. 

HEEREMA: Exactly. The lecture became a 
kind of monopoly where the students in this 
kind of system had to go to the lecture, and 
the lecturer felt no responsibility in really 
putting his time, or himself, into the lecture, 
since he had a sort of captive audience. This 
has been one of the troubles with lectures: 
that it has decayed a lot. One of the real arts, 
I think, has been lost on academic campuses, 
the ability to tell and to write a story. It's 
somehow been lost. A really good lecture 
should tell a story, it should be engaging and 
entertaining as well as informative. If it isn't, 
it's going to appeal only to a very narrow 
segment of those who are present. 
DETWEILER: Something else is involved in 
Boggs' criticism and that's that he, you, the 
students, are expecting the professor to do all 
of the innovating. This is our fault and 
society's fault generally because you've been 
put into the inferior position of the 
master-slave relationship. I should think you 
should be liberating yourself by now, so that 
if a class doesn't work, yeah, you can bitch at 
the professor for not making it work, but you 
ought to be asking yourselves as well why you 
haven't done something to make it work. Of 
course more than accusations. You know, the 
thing I've been trying to do in Literary 
Criticism is one hell of a struggle because 
students don't respond to it. I've been saying 
from the first day, "I don't want to lecture; I 
don't want mere discussions; I want you to 
help structure the whole semester." But who 
responds? Maybe a half a dozen out of a class 
of thirty five. The rest still want to be spoon 
fed. And then when they're spoon fed they 
bitch about the monotony of it. 
HEEREMA: This was a great thing, one of the 
attractive things, really, about the Core 
program. I was always told that you were not 
even really a discussion leader, that really this 
was a gathering together of people and that 

you were just a faculty member in there and 
were expected to keep the conversation going, 
that much of the initiative in the Core 
program was supposed to come from the 
students, something I have found almost a 
complete lack of. Secondly at this school, one 
of the fine things about this school is the 
fantastic freedom each faculty member and 
the students have to design their own courses. 
No one really tells you what to teach or how 
to teach or anything; you're given a kind of 
free reign to go. And it's terribly hard to 
really appreciate this, especially if you haven't 
experienced other schools. What with this 
freedom, this ability, why hasn't a more 
innovative approach to education been 
generated. To ask solely the faculty to do it is 
to fall into the whole trap. If you want to 
make an innovative and experimental school 
this means that the whole school has to be 
innovative and experimental, not just the 
curriculum and not just the faculty. 
DETWEILER: Students have the opportunity 
and the power to turn the school totally 
upside down, and don't do it. 
LINDA: I don't think we've had quite that 
opportunity until this year, or at least haven't 
realized it before. 

DETWEILER: You may not have realized it. I 
think it's always been there, latent. 
LINDA: It's possible, but I think a lot of kids 
are waking up this year and realizing it. Do 
you think the College Assembly is going to be 
effective in reshaping curriculum or do you 
think that maybe it isn't the way we should 
go about reshaping the school? 
DETWEILER: I think the College Assembly is 
the most effective instrument at this point for 
the college. And it ought to be exploited. 
HEEREMA: Well, I would totally disagree. It 
seems that the College Assembly is again falling 
into what I would term a sort of romantic 
fallacy, namely, that by getting everybody 
together in a big community, we can sit down 
and discuss our problems and as reasonable 
people arrive at a decision. Hopefully, we can 
find that magic structure into which suddenly 
everybody will throw themselves with 

complete lack of abandon. And I don't think 
that this occurs. I think one of the problems 
is that you have everybody running around, 
messing around with everything and you have 
chaos and anarchy. What's got to happen is in 
the very guts of the school, in the very 
classrooms, something's got to emerge here, at 
this level, something of an exciting nature. It's 
the job of the administration to administer 
and to determine the policies and direction of 
the school. If you get everybody in the 
College Assembly trying to do it, you're going 
to go off in a hundred different directions at 
once, and it's impossible for a small college to 
survive like this. 

LINDA: Don't you think the committees can 
keep us from acting without having seriously 
considered questions? 

DETWEILER: Committees usually get in the 
way instead of solving anything. 
HEEREMA: What you do when you want 
long range planning is you form a huge, 
monstrous committee with everybody 
represented and what you're going to have is 
everybody sitting around there talking with 
a bunch of vested interests, each person 
making a beautiful argument for his own 
particular area. You're not going to get 
anywhere. What FPC needs to say is 
something like "FPC is going to experiment 
and innovate in this direction. If you want to 
climb on board, fine, you're welcome, but 
this is our direction." We aren't saying that 
other directions or other things aren't valid or 
valuable, just that they should be done 
someplace else, because we're concentrating 
and focusing on these things. And you have 
to, if you're going to do this, have a few 
people in charge who give direction and 
meaning to the whole thing. You can't let the 
whole group as a body sit down and decide 

DETWEILER: Along these lines too I don't 
think that one should wait for a committee or 
the College Assembly or even the 
administration to formulate a policy, "project 
a new direction," and say this is where we're 
going to go. If you wait for this, you're going 

to wait for the next ten years. What you've 
got to do is to start innovating and creating in 
your classroom, in your dorm, God, even at 
the Chug-a-Lug, and then discover if what 
you've got is sufficiently valid for other 
people to get aboard and reinforce your 

LINDA: I was wondering if you as individuals 
feel as if you are leaving us at a time when we 
most need you to help us do these things. I 
know a lot of students are woebegone because 
here you two, our best innovators, are leaving 

DETWEILER: Nobody's indispensible. 
Indispensibility is a myth, and that's not a 
statement to cover up guilt for leaving. I've 
done essentially what I can do here; had I not 
had this offer I would have stayed here gladly 
and remained enthusiastically in this program, 
but essentially I've done all I can. I find 
myself repeating myself in the past year or so, 
in Core lectures and in private discussions, in 
classroom situations and what not. So I have 
the sense that my political effect here has 
reached its limit. The only thing I could do 
next would be to try to become an 
administrator and become effective in that 
manner. But if I were to become an 
administrator I wouldn't have the kind of 
effectiveness I have now, so in that sense too I 
have reached my limit. 

HEEREMA: If I haven't had my say in four 
years here, I'm not going to say much more in 
another four years. And I do find myself 
getting redundant in my argument I find 
myself continually going to my same 
approach to education. Well, if people haven't 
listened in four years to it, again, in another 
four years they aren't going to listen any 
more. Secondly, as one of our faculty 
members remarked what is far more 
important is not to look at the faculty 
members who are leaving, but to look at the 
faculty members who are staying. Don't 
worry about faculty members leaving. Part of 
our game in life is moving around. Nothing 
flatters a faculty member more than an offer 
from a new place ... to feel he's wanted 

other places, to go to new places. Faculty 
members are going to move. I think the real 
danger for an institution is to have no turn 
over. Then it doesn't cull out the dead wood. 
DETWEILER: Right. I suspect, too, that in 
the lit. department, my departure is going to 
provide room for one or two new people who 
are going to provide their sort of freshness. 
And it's time for this. In addition to that, I 
don't think it really much matters whether or 
not FPC survives. What matters is whether 
particular individuals and society itself 
survives, and my job is not guaranteeing the 
survival of FPC, but doing what I can to plug 
in at a particular place where my particular 
talents seem to be most necessary, and my 
talents now seem to be more necessary in the 
program I'm getting into. 
LINDA: That's one of the things that some 
people have mentioned to me. They feel that 
undergraduate level is "where it's at," and 
going to a graduate school is putting yourself 
into a place where you're not going to be able 
to function as effectively, and you're not going 
to be working with people who are involved. 
You're going to be working with intellectual 
scholars who are away from society, rather 
than working with the lower eschalons of the 
educational system who are going to go 
directly into the society and be directly 
affecting the shaping of society. 
DETWEILER: This might be true of a 
traditional graduate school. I happen to be 
going into an experimental graduate 
department which is geared toward preparing 
innovative humanities teachers who will be 
going back into places like FPC; whose 
program, in fact, is so crazy that many of 
them can be hired only by schools like FPC. 
So in this sense I'm not really changing 

LINDA: But you are teaching teachers, right? 
You're teaching teachers to be teachers, to 
teach teachers to be teachers . . . 
DETWEILER: Not necessarily. Some of 
them, yeah, but other people in this program 
are going into government service, industry, 
movie-making, that sort of thing. In fact, one 

of my efforts there as far as I can project will 
be to look for alternatives to teaching for 
students in graduate school. 
HEEREMA: It seems to me that this is a little 
bit harsh on graduate schools, a bit snobbish 
towards them. Education occurs at all levels 
of a human being's existence. It can occur at 
the level of graduate school as well as at 
undergraduate level. You get back to this 
argument of people going back into society, 
going back into what?! There's no mystical or 
magical real world, and then a bunch of little 
unreal worlds. Academia is a real world, 
industry is a real world, government is a real 
world, and all of them are different. 
LINDA: Don't you feel that academia tends 
to be a self-sustaining real world and that it 
isn't a part of the total picture enough? 
HEEREMA: No more so than industry is, or 
no more so than government service is. 
DETWEILER: If you want a justification for 
what I'm doing, look at it along these lines: 
practically every student I talk to has heard 
nightmare stories about graduate school and 
how difficult it is for an FPC graduate to do 
well in a traditional graduate school. All right, 
so I'm trying to reform the graduate school, 
to prepare a place for FPC students. Really! 
LINDA: Can you give some suggestions as to 
what can be done here to help the student get 
into remaking his educational process? Do 
you think Jefferson House can be extended to 
a larger number of students, do you think 
that that much freedom is good for students 
in general or only for the few who take the 
initiative to get themselves into it? 
DETWEILER: I don't know who it is good 
for and who it isn't good for, and how do you 
know until you try it out? 
LINDA: How has Jefferson House worked so 

DETWEILER: I think it's worked better than 
we deserve in terms of time and money— or 
lack of time and money— we've put into it. 
We've got a better deal than we ought to have 
but we shouldn't push our luck. You talk 
about expanding Jefferson House. I'd say at 
this that we should first give the professors 

who are in the program some time to do their 
job well. Jefferson House is now in danger of 
turning into a grand scale independent study, 
because the fellows are so busy doing their 
regular thing that they don't have time to see 
their students. So you've got seventy to 
eighty people running around who, according 
to the script, should be in close contact with 
their advisors. They aren't. Their advisors 
don't have time to see them. How are you 
going to expand a program that is already 
pressed for personnel? We've been squeezing 
blood from a turnip in Jefferson House and in 
other programs around here and this is 
becoming dangerous. 

HEEREMA: Yes, this is the problem. First of 
all Jefferson House just hasn't been around 
long enough to evaluate. 

HEEREMA: Secondly, you don't only have 
Jefferson House, you have the Institute of 
International Education, the program of 
Jackson House, and on and on and on, and I 
think the school's spreading itself too thin. 

HEEREMA: It should really concentrate on 
saying, "look, if you want to do Jefferson 
House, fine, let's do it, and then let's evaluate 
it as an experiment before we move on to 
other things. What we find valuable out of 
Jefferson House we will keep." Secondly, I 
think Bob is entirely right: whether it 
succeeds or not depends on the individual 
level of the relationship between the faculty 
member and the student. If you have good 
faculty members who are concerned and 
interested in the students, if you have 
concerned students, you're going to have a 
success almost regardless of what structure 
you're in. Now, does the structure of 
Jefferson House produce this or not? I think 
that at the present time the college is 
spreading itself too thin. There are too many 
programs to really give Jefferson House a real 

DETWEILER: FPC is still trying to compete 
with universities. It's offering a proliferation 
of courses and programs, even a number of 

curricula. We're getting in way over our heads 
in terms of personnel and finances. And 
sometime soon, like yesterday, the school 
must decide where its priorities are and do 
them and stick to them. Maybe FPC ought to 
cut down to a half a dozen majors and do 
these well, and have a couple of experimental 
programs on the side, instead of going out in 
x different directions and hoping that the 
faculty's flexible enough and resiliant enough 
to absorb them all. 

HEEREMA: You can't be experimental and 
innovative and not hold the total school open 
to experimentation and innovation. You can't 
set up experimental curriculum and then hold 
everything else fixed. A good example is the 
fact that you have three people in each 
department or four in some, but basically we 
say we have to have a balance in each one. 
This was created at a time when FPC had a 
tremendous amount of requirements, the year 
of science requirement, the math-logic 
requirement, the language requirement, the 
Core program, which means that you could 
disperse students all over the place. When you 
start eliminating requirements you're going to 
get heavy concentration in certain areas. This 
means that you might have to give up this 
ideal of a balanced faculty across the board. I 
don't know if you do have to give up this 
ideal or not, but nevertheless, this should be 
open for question. Also there should be one 
big question: When you eliminate a language 
requirement do you have to be willing to 
accept the repercussions in other areas? What 
we're trying to do is to confine it to 
experimenting with the curriculum and now 
these other areas are really getting in our way. 
There are many exciting areas you can move 
into; there's been a big demand, for example, 
for a communications maior. 
DETWEILER: Hear, Hear! 
HEEREMA: But you can't move into 
communications unless you're going to draw 
resources out of certain other areas and put 
them into communications. 

Also as an economist, I see things like this: 
The college has to decide what it wants to do 

with its resources. It's a liberal arts school. 
There are certain programs a liberal arts 
school has to run. And some of these, like 
science, have to be expensive. So you have to 
say do you want science or not, and if you 
want science, and I don't see how you can 
have a liberal arts college without science, you 
have to face up to the fact that it's going to be 
expensive. On the other hand there are some 
areas where you don't have to be expensive 
that are terribly expensive around here. For 
example, I should think it would be far 
cheaper, far more demanding, and far easier, 
if you think we need an international 
education program, to run a Latin American 
studies program rather than an East Asian 
studies program. You see the point I'm 
driving at here: if we need an international 
educational program then let's adopt one in 
which we have a sort of built in ability to take 
advantage of a number of economies, rather 
than build a tremendously expensive program 
that we have no business getting involved 

DETWEILER: Also, we're not looking and 
planning nearly far enough ahead. A couple of 
things that are inevitable for the next couple 
of decades are the consolidation of schools, 
colleges, universities, in an area; what the 
country is doing in terms of competition in a 
particular geographical area is absurd. I think 
that FPC, if it wants to be innovative, should 
start exploring the possibilities of linking up 
with South Florida, St. Pete Junior College, 
New College. We're running parallel programs 
at tremendous expense, nearly killing 
ourselves through debts, and there's no real 
need for it except petty competitiveness. We 
could have interchange programs, run in a 
very profitable manner, that would benefit all 
schools. Another thing which I think is going 
to happen eventually is work-study programs, 
apprenticeships within the schools and at 
other institutions in the area. We ought to be 
worrying with this stuff instead of fiddling 
around with piddly little things in the 
curriculum. This is what's happening to 

HEEREMA: FPC is so built in the groove of 
these directions. For example there is in the 
catalog what is required for graduation: thirty 
two courses or their equivalent. But nobody 
pays any attention to those words or those 
equivalents. You get students going out and 
doing something in the community, the first 
thing they want is academic credit for it. But 
why? This might be something that academic 
credit has nothing to do with. Why don't they 
say: "Look, I've had an experience here, I'd 
like it to be accepted as the equivalent of a 

DETWEILER: Yeah. Back to Boggs' criticism. 
One thing that you can safely say nowadays is 
that much— maybe most— significant learning 
does not take place in the classroom, and we 
had damn well better start looking for ways 
of implementing efficiently a college 
education apart from the classroom situation. 
HEEREMA: So kids go down, two or some 
students, in the ghetto area. How do you 
assign a grade to that? They go out and clean 
ducks. How do you assign a grade to that? 
That's absurd. 

DETWEILER: I have an image that occurred 
to me a couple of days ago while preparing a 
Core lecture that contrasts the old concept of 
higher education in terms of the image of an 
assembly line versus the new concept of a 
college as a "switchboard." The old assembly 
line process, which is a very academic thing, 
puts a student into the machine, sends him 
through, fills him with knowledge, processes 
him, polishes him, packages him and sends 
him out into society. This is the well-rounded 
individual. Whereas I think the modern 
college ought to be a switchboard, where you 
use the college to plug students in and out of 
various institutions in the community, get 
him a job with Honeywell for a semester, let 
him work in a hospital, let him go to USF, let 
him do courses here. There are tremendous 
possibilities for a variable education that we 
haven't even looked at. 

The university goes wrong, I think, in that it 
doesn't try to plug the student into society in 
the way I've suggested, but it tries to 

duplicate society. The multiversity becomes a 
society of its own in which it tries to offer the 
student everything that he ought to be getting 
outside of the institution. This is 
self-defeating. FPC at least can't make this 
mistake. It's far too small. It's impossible for 
us to duplicate society, so that maybe this 
concept of switchboarding could be done 
more efficiently at FPC. 
LINDA: Have you any specific suggestions 
about what FPC should do? 
DETWEILER: I don't know what's happening 
in terms of formal structure. Do you? 
HEEREMA: No, I don't. 

The students have a lot more power than 
they think they do. One area of power that 
they should take seriously is faculty 
evaluation. The students had faculty 
evaluation forms but they told nothing. Not 
enough students filled them out to make it 

DETWEILER: Same here. 
HEEREMA: If students are really going to get 
a grasp here, they have to say, "Look, we 
want the college going in certain directions 
and there are certain people here that we feel 
we really like." And students should really 
bring pressure to move these people who have 
power! Now the students are only one 
pressure group, but they haven't even 
operated as a pressure group so far. 
LINDA: Do you think it is wise to get 
students intimately involved in deciding their 
education? In the past people haven't thought 
students intelligent enough to know what he 

DETWEILER: This is a prejudice that is 
disappearing very fast. You can't expect very 
many students at this point to be aware of the 
main problems and configurations of 
American higher education, because it's been 
in just the last few years that the faculty and 
administration have themselves gotten a very 
sophisticated overview. I think this has 
happened to both Doug and me in the last 
five to six years. Before I came here, during 
my one year at Hunter College, I was 
beginning to become, I suppose, radicalized in 

the sense that I was developing a political, 
social, cultural awareness outside of my field 
of teaching literature, teaching English. And 
this has intensified at FPC, so that now I feel 
myself very involved in the whole process of 
higher education, not necessarily as an English 
teacher, but as an educator, capital E. And I 
suppose students ought to become educators 
themselves in a way, even while they're being 

HEEREMA: The student shouldn't expect to 
have the sole say because there are many 
different ways of evaluating, say, a faculty 
member, but theirs is an important one. The 
problem is that they haven't taken their role 
seriously enough. 

DETWEILER: Yeah. Here's something that 
has bothered me lately about the concept of 
student power. Students want the right to 
decide and direct their own educations. Good. 
They ought to have it. But students are 
around a school usually a maximum of four 
years, at least a school like this, so that any 
one person is going to have a four-year 
influence. So what's going to happen to the 
concepts they've initiated later? Where's your 
guarantee of the continuity that's going to 
give the institution some kind of direction 
and valuable self-identity? It seems that this 
hasn't been thought out much. 
HEEREMA: There is a different time 
perspective in regard to this. The faculty 
member, even though he might be around a 
shorter time than the student, tends to think 
this is the school where he is going to be ten 
to twenty years from now. With this different 
time perspective the student must realize that 
he is only one force in determining his 
education among a number of forces. Now 
he's got to take himself seriously, but he's 
also got to be content with the fact that he 
can't run the whole show. And too, they try 
to take over everything, and if they can't have 
the total say, they kind of give up. Students 
must get involved, and if they don't, they 
have no one to blame for the drift of the 
school but themselves. If they get actively 
involved and try and then the school doesn't 

really meet their needs, then they've got a 
legitimate complaint. 

I would like to add one thing about this 
school that I'm really going to miss, because I 
don't know if I'll find it anywhere else or not. 
First of all this school has for its size a fine 
faculty. Secondly, it's a humane school in the 
sense that I've really felt that I could really 
engage in discussion and argument here which 
was never personalized. In other words we 
could disagree and discuss and argue points, 
and it was all at a level where people did not 
take this as a personal affront. I think this was 
true with students, faculty, and 
administration. This is something FPC should 

regard as one of the things it should never 
lose, because it's a very valuable aspect of the 

DETWEILER: Along those lines I have 
become broadened here much more intensely 
and rapidly than anywhere else. I'm not sure 
if this is primarily the FPC mystique or the 
whole accelerated nature of modern living. I 
think it's a combination. But in any case it's 
happened to me while I've been at FPC. And 
this indicates that there is something going on 
here that very significantly changes people. 
HEEREMA: I think that the Core program, to 
me at least, has been a fantastic success; I 
really achieved an education while I was here 

with the Core program. 
DETWEILER: Same here. 
HEEREMA: And I think people who have not 
participated strongly in Core around this 
school have really missed something. 
DETWEILER: In spite of the quasi-disrepute 
that Core now languishes in, this still remains 
the basis of the college. And if the Core 
concept goes, then you might as well move 
the college up to Grinel or Oberlin, because 
then you're going to have a second or third 
rate traditional liberal arts college. 
LINDA: Thank you both very much. I really 
enjoyed it. 

HEEREMA: Peace. 

Alfred North Whitehead, in the Aims of 
Education, presents perhaps the best 
definition of the educational process when he 
says "There is only one subject-matter for 
education and that is Life, in all its 
manifestations." (New York, 1929, p. 6) For 
Whitehead there is not and should not be the 
division of the curriculum into descrete units; 
there is no place for unrelated ideas presented 
and not used. These inert ideas, which are 
neither used, nor tested, nor even tied to one 
another in meaningful ways, create an 
education which, in Whitehead's words, "is 
not only useless; it is, above all things 
harmful . . ." (p. 1) Whitehead believes that 
there should not be teaching for the sake of 
teaching; that the teaching of facts should be 
subservient to the teaching of reasoning. 
There is a distinction to be made between the 
acquisition and the application of facts; 
"education is the acquisition of the art of the 
utilization of knowledge." (p. 4) Knowledge, 
to Whitehead, is almost peripheral to its use. 
Although he does not advocate non-learning 
("where attainable knowledge could have 
changed the issue, ignorance has the guilt of 
vice" (p. 14)), he is more concerned with 
being able to learn when it is necessary. 
Realizing that youth by its very nature 
concerned with absorbing all that is presented 
to it, Whitehead is anxious that the educator 
provide a framework for the sometimes 
unrelated information acquired. "Education 
must essentially be a setting in order of 
ferment already stirring in the mind; you 
cannot educate a mind in vacuo." (p. 18) 
This, above all, is Whitehead's concern: that 
the educational process be an orderly one, be 
one which supercedes itself in regard to its 
immediate and long range applications. 

Robert Maynard Hutchins, the former 
president of the University of Chicago, goes 
one step further than Whitehead in the 
requisites for education. Although a series of 
lectures delivered at Yale University in 1936, 
The Higher Learning in America (New Haven, 
1936), speaks about problems still facing 
higher education today. The financial 
problems of maintaining a university, the 
dilemmas of professionalism, isolation and 
anti-intellectualism are considered. It is his 

address on general education, however, which 
is an extension of Whitehead's remarks on the 
purpose of education and, more importantly, 
ways to achieve this purpose. Hutchins 
believes that all men, whether "formally" 
educated or not, must have a common means 
of expression, a "common intellectual 
training" (p. 59). For Hutchins, any plan of 
general education must first of all develop 
clear thinking. 

Prudent or practical wisdom selects the means 
toward the ends we desire. It is acquired partly 
from intellectual operations and partly from 
experience. But the chief requirements for it is 
correctness in thinking, (p. 67) 

This correctness in thinking cannot be 
developed rapidly, nor can it be left to 
students to develop. "Educators cannot 
permit the students to dictate the course of 
study unless they are prepared to confess that 
they are nothing but chaperones . . ." (p. 70) 
In developing the curriculum for his general 
education, Hutchins depends on the classics, 
the great books of Western Civilization, and 
acquiring the skill to read them. "I add to 
grammar, or the rules of reading, rhetoric and 
logic, or the rules of writing, speaking and 
reasoning." (p. 83) To these he adds 
mathematics. "Correctness in thinking may be 
more directly and impressively be taught 
through mathematics than in any other way." 
(p. 84) Hutchins, like Whitehead, believes that 
the development of technique is more 
important than the accumulation of fact. 

When the FPC curriculum was devised by 
John Bevan, it incorporated much of what 
Whitehead and Hutchins had described as 
necessary to the education of students. To 
Bevan, the FPC community, both faculty and 
students, was "involved in the pursuit of 
learning." (Experimental Colleges, Their Role 
in American Higher Education, Tallahassee, 
1964, p. 91) Much of Bevan's plan involved 
independent study work, and many of the 
learning traditions, e.g. no required class or 
chapel attendance, open stacks in the library, 
were begun to facilitate almost complete 
independence on the part of the students. 
This independence did not make chaperones of 
the faculty; students worked in connection 
with, and under the direction of, a faculty 
member who was most of all personally 

excited about learning. However, it is the 
Core program which is directly related to 
what Whitehead and Hutchins see as essential 
to education. The objective of Core is: "to 
equip the student for the formation and 
articulation of informed, independent 
responsible judgments of value." (p. 92) This 
is, in essence, following Whitehead's idea that 
education is a "setting in order" of the 
thoughts of men. Hutchins belief that clear 
thinking is most necessary is acknowledged: 
"the development of skill in analysis, dialectic 
and writing receive attention as necessary 
preparation for value judgments." (p. 92) In 
addition to the attention paid these skills in 
Core, the required math or logic course also 
developed the talent for analysis necessary to 
the educated man. For FPC, the mandate, as 
stated by Bevan, is "the engenderment of a 
wholesome and critical enthusiasm for inquiry 
and reflection that will extend beyond the 
period of formal education." (p. 92) 

FPC, has, I believe, rejected, at least in 
part, the philosophical base on which it was 
founded. The emphasis has shifted from value 
to quantity; passing Core means reading and 
not relating. The objective tests do nothing 
but create "inert ideas" in the minds of 
students; at no point do all of these thoughts 
even approach utilization. No longer does a 
Core comp help students see an overview of 
their knowledge. By doing away with the 
math/logic requirement, the necessity for 
"correctness in thinking" has been minimized 
to too great an extent. By packaging 
knowledge into 14 week bundles (a required 
33 courses to "graduate") the wisdom of life 
is clouded. If we are to accept Whitehead's 
definition of education, FPC cannot be 
included. If conventional methods should be 
disregarded, as FPC says they must, are we 
offering anything new? Are we, in reality, any 
different from the multiversity we scorn? 
Warren Martin, during the self-confrontation 
in November, 1968, called us 
innovative — "seeking new means to 
established ends, where the basic values of the 
educational system are assumed to be sound". 
Perhaps we are rejecting even this, and falling 
back on established means, the means we 
were protesting. 

Anne Noris 

With the demise of the language 
requirement, Core stands as the only 
all-college academic requirement. Moreover, 
as a result of Jefferson House even Core is not 
genuinely an all-college requirement. 

In this unique position the Core curriculum 
is likely to experience increasing demands for 
reform or abolition. In the past our Core 
planners have met criticism with token 
reforms cunningly packaged to appear radical 
or at least innovative. Probably the only Core 
innovations of the past five years of any 
significance were Core Science and "Area 
Studies." Various other tampering with the 
Core curriculum has occurred but this has 
mostly resulted in the facelifting of old 

I believe that, in order for Core to a viable 
part of the FPC curriculum, all of the 
following untested assumptions of the Core 
program must be carefully considered: 

LThat Core can be planned and taught 
without a fairly precise and meaningful 
statement of purpose. 

2. That Core classes must be segregated by 

3. That a small number of faculty must 
determine the reading material for a 
large number of students. 

4. That books are chosen to fit discussion 
topics rather than the opposite. 

5. That lectures are a valuable aspect of 

The purpose of Core, I believe, should be 
to allow students to intensively study one 
area (e.g. culture; Asia, Latin America— social 
problems; racism, environment— art; graphics, 
photography, etc.) for one semester only. All 
these subjects could be taught as regular 
courses, but as Core courses they would be 
designed for non-majors who don't have the 
time to pursue the subject further but who 
are definitely interested in being exposed to 
the study area. I question the paradox of 

formulating a "central theme" each semester 
then asking each discussion group to adhere 
to the theme and simultaneously have its own 
unique experience. In the past the central 
theme has seemed far too contrived. I 
therefore suggest its de-emphasis. 

A second purpose of Core which I would 
advocate is the acquisition of communication 
skills. It has been my experience that some 
students are graduated from FPC barely able 
to write coherently or speak articulately on a 
given theme, while others are bored by 
writing numerous papers for Core and sitting 
through lengthy discussions. 

I suggest the collection of all written work 
of each student in the Core office. This would 
allow professors who had never had a certain 
student in his classes before to determine 
what writing skills the student has developed 
and whether or not it would be worthwhile to 
continue to require writing exercises (i.e. term 
papers, etc.) to improve his ability to 
communicate. It would also enable the 
professor to determine whether the student 
did "creative projects" as an exercise in 
creativity or as a dodge from a task which he 
was not competent to perform. 

As a concomitant of de-emphasizing 
"central themes" it would be valuable or 
perhaps even necessary to allow students of 
all four grade-levels to participate in all 
project groups. I see no reason for segregating 
Core by grade-levels or, especially, treating 
Seniors as a group which needs special 
arrangements for Core. 

There is one aspect of the "central theme" 
which may have some merit, viz. Core reading 
lists. Many educators (and students) recognize 
the value of reading widely during the 
undergraduate years material which is not 
necessarily correlated with any course work. 
If Core is to continue requiring certain 
reading for all students, I suggest the 
formulation of a Core reading list of 

approximately 75-100 books. This would not 
be the equivalent of a list of "great books" 
but, instead, would reflect our Core 
professors' opinion of what readings would be 
particularly valuable (and hopefully 
interesting) to Core students. This list could 
be relatively easily formulated by collecting 
ballots from all Core professors and could be 
annually revised by the same method. With a 
reading list such as this, Core students could 
be required to read a certain number of books 
each semester or have completed a certain 
percentage of the list by the end of the Senior 
year. This would eliminate the somewhat 
capricious reading selections which a small 
number of planners is likely to make. There 
seems to be no evidence that it is valuable for 
all students to be reading the same book at 
the same time. 

Finally, I would like to raise the issue of 
Core presentations. Most members of the 
college community place a high value on films 
as a pedagogical tool. For this reason I think 
that the Core cinema series should be 

However, as to the other prominent mode 
of presentation, the lecture, a great deal of 
investigation should take place. Questions 
should be raised such as: Why give a lecture 
which reviews something already presented in 
Core readings? Why give a lecture simply 
because it is that time of the week and a 
lecture is on the schedule? Why present a 
lecture orally? Why not print copies of the 
lecture and distribute it, thus saving 
everyone's time and enabling the student to 
review the entire lecture rather than scanty 

Core has been, at times, a valuable part of 
the FPC curriculum. With a greater willingness 
to question some of our basic assumptions 
Core can continue to be a valuable 

Jay Gilbert 

the eye . . . 

John Keyes always doodled eyes, 

drawing them up & down 

his notebooks, school books, diaries, 

scratch pads, even one in the brown 

rest room of Bid Dad's 

Pizza Palace: big eyes, slant eyes, bloodshot 

brown, blue, green, all kinds: 

wherever John was 

eyes were to be seen. 

myth of 



Am I drawing wombs with 

pupils? (An interesting switch, 

John being a schoolteacher) Are these 

"I" eyes or cosmic eyes, 

negative I's or affirmative ayes? 

Am I searching for a vision? 

Do I fear going blind? Are 

they man-eyes or woman-eyes, 

cruel I's or kind? 

And back behind his brows 

a thought squinted to get out: 

John, maybe you drew them 

because you could 

and continue because you can. 

Remember, you once did a whole head 

of a man, but it didn't look good. 

Peter Meinke 







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Maybe I should write a nice, cheerful letter. 
Vfter all the news about school, somewhere 
ear the bottom of the second page, I could 
jst casually mention the fact that I'm 
regnant, and then go on. No, better than 
hat would be the dramatic flavor of a 
elegram. They'd really eat that up; especially 
llise. "Failed psych mid-term stop probably 
regnant stop love Lynn." That does have 
ossibilities. A bit stark, but then it would 
ertainly have their undivided attention. Best 
if all would be an announcement for the 
ociety page: Lynn Jamison, daughter of the 
wealthy Ralph Jamisons of fashionable 
i/estchester and equally fashionable Bar 
larbour, is pregnant. Having decided to 
orego the usual round of pre-nuptial parties 
s well as the traditional wedding ceremony, 
his pert and vivacious college sophomore has 
ot yet announced whether she will seek an 
bortion or place the infant for adoption. 

Maybe I'll call. First my voice cracks then 
ne tears would start. On cue, Elise could 
egin sobbing. Dad would ask why she was 
rying for God's sake, and get mad when he 
ouldn't understand what she was mumbling. 
lise is at her best with wet eyes and 
'embling lips and she knows it. Dad knows it, 
do, but he still suckers. Confusion and 
icoherency always bring out his best 
uthoritarian instincts. In his 
m-important-so-you'd-just-better-listen voice 
e would get on the phone and demand to 
now what was going on. It's easy to say the 
'ords silently, and we have decided that I 
ave to tell my parents, but when the 
loment comes, I know I'll blow it and start 
lying I'm sorry and that I didn't mean it 
'hen I don't really think I'm sorry about any 
f it. No, Daddy, I wasn't raped and we won't 

file suit and I don't want to talk to a lawyer. 
Next he would order me to come home 
immediately so the subject could be discussed 
in a civilized manner without resorting to 
lower class hysteria. 

He will be hurt but not want to show it. 
The thought of an unknown boy touching me 
and making love to me will really tear him up. 
It's been so long since he really looked at me 
or wanted to know what I was doing. All of 
his money will not keep me a child or make 
him a father. His artificially constructed little 
world will come tumbling down when his 
worst fears are realized and he finds out that I 
do the same things he did when he was young. 
He'll dig up an obliging friend of the family to 
help me out and then the incident will be 
officially closed as far as he's concerned. A 
minor bit of unpleasantness to be sure, but 
not an earthshaking event. 

Elise, on the other hand, will be personally 
offended that I would do this to her, like I 
really did it on purpose to spite her. She'll 
have at least one fainting spell and maybe she 
could work up a few heart palpitations. Darn, 
they wear me out. 

Maybe tomorrow I'll decide how to tell 
them and then someone else can take charge. 
What a stupid idea to come to Lauderdale 
anyway. Cooped up in this damned room for 
a whole week with a bunch of stupid girls just 
begging to get screwed— and these damned 
sleeping pills never work. I don't plan on 
being awake when the herd comes in full of 
"he said this" and "she did that." A couple 
extra won't hurt anything. 

f I go home, they would meet me at JFK. 
After Elise fluttered around for a while 
pretending to be happy to see me and after 
Dad had bossed some porters around trying to 

The distance from the back seat to the 
front is beyond measure. Those enthroned in 
the front seat are dominant and powerful. 
They see the road far ahead and they push 
buttons to make instruments work. They 
exude beauty and sophistication. They know 
they're rich and their friends tell them they're 
fascinating. They can be clever, slippery, and 
mean as a squirrel if cornered. They are 
brittle, hollow, and adored by an elite web of 
sticky-footed spider people who serve them 
lovingly to their winter-tanned faces while 
frantically trying to pull the strings tight 
enough to wipe off their cocky grins. Back 
seats are for losers. I hate back seats but 
Elise hates more to be crowded in front, so I 
must sit alone in back. 

The more Elise would chatter, the louder 
the silence would grow. Dad would stare at 
the wavy line of concrete expressway as if he 
had never seen it before, and I would be able 
to tell by the back of his neck and knuckles 
retrieve my suitcases, we would get in the car 
and I would be alone with them. I would try 
to make myself tiny and pathetic in the back 
seat of Elise's Buick. I always had to call her 
Elise because she hates the sound of the word 
Mom. It reminds her of a cow's udder. 
Anyway, it would be her car. Each year Elise 
gets a new baby-blue Electra 225. Dad usually 
sticks to something a little sportier and keeps 
it for two years. We don't drive Continentals 
because they are ostentatious and we no 
longer drive Cadillacs because all the Jews and 
Negroes have ruined what used to be 
America's prestige automobile. Or anyway, 
that's Dad's theory. His theories are 
considered law because Elise is too dumb to 
have an opinion of her own and I just don't 

on the wheel that I was in trouble. Sometimes 
at night when I was alone in the back seat and 
getting a little bit sleepy, I liked to push my 
face against the car window and look up 
through the wavy glass at the vapor lights. If I 
let my eyes get just a little out of focus, the 
purple mist stopped being lights on the road 
and all sorts of really nice things came. 
Sometimes there were huge hungry eyes of 
giant flying saucers spying on Long Island and 
New York and Westchester and Scarsdale and 
White Plains. Sometimes gobs and garlands of 
glowing cotton candy looped like decorations 
on Christmas tree concrete poles floated by in 
a dizzy blue. I could see Fourth of July 
pinwheels explode in pinkness and whiteness 
and lightness. 

The warm light was friendly and called to 
me, but my body is heavy and warm in the 
back seat. They could not see me from the 
front seat and I want to call out so they 
remember that I am there, but my voice will 
not work. My eyes are heavy but I see eager 
flames reaching out to touch and lick and kiss 
as they hurry into the soft cushions. They 
won't let me open the window. I'm so hot 
and they are cool in the front seat and do not 
know how hard it is to see through the smoke 
and to breathe hot air. When I tell them that 
they must open the windows, they do not 
listen and drive so fast that my voice is 
pushed back into me. Pink tongues of flame 
made crisp brown edges around the closet 
door and the white cotton rug shrivels in 
black spirals. Touching the suitcases and 
tasting each crack in the floor, the huge hot 
beast devours. It is too hot to cry, too close 
to run from, and I have no voice and can not 
run. Kathy Hagan 


The Violation of Vanessa 

(Or Vanessa Ticklebut's Totty Tragedy) 

For M. P. 

'I Love you, my dear." 

'Words can express. . . ?" 

'Yes. Haven't they done so? My feeling is not 
so deep that it must be betrayed." 

'You mean exposed. I never suspected your feelings 
of being anything but that, so I never shared them." 

'You cannot live a lie, Mrs. Ticklebut, just yet." 

'I should have thought from your lover's-point-of-view-, 
Harry, that I could do anything. So should you have 
thought had you taken account of the fact that you 
are the better part of that lie, and, as I am the 
rest of it, that waiter had better make it another 
daiquiri fast or. . ." 



'I can try to live a lie, Harry, and I bet I get 
away with it, if Charles is the same booby I 
married five years ago, and he is, and I'm not 
the same fool I was, and I'm not" 

'Just the same, I'd hate to think you'd cheat. . ." 

'Him? I'd hate the same thing were he I; meet him 
half-way, that's what you imply? We're through. 
The other day he asked me why, and I said 'you,' 
that's it. He mentioned settlements. Harry, 
we can be discreet, though I'm six months on the way." 

'I hate to say it's getting late." 

'You hated to think I'd cheat too." 

'Now Mrs. Ticklebut, Vanessa, you come over to my place 
at eight for fun and games. . ." 

"Harry, you make me so hot and bothered. Oh, Harry 
we will play 'to and fro'?" 

Bruce Frank Walker 

BO: I want to know, basically, why the 
colored students on campus formed . . . 
GENE: You shouldn't call us the "colored" 
BO: What? 

GENE: You shouldn't call us the "colored" 
students. Why do you say that? 
BO: My heritage. Is that bad? Is it considered 
a derogatory term? I like to call Negroes 
Spades. I always have, and I picked that up 
from San Francisco. But I don't 
understand . . . 
GENE: How long ago? 
BO: Couple years ago. 

GENE: Okay. Well, that's a derogatory term 

BO: It's not to me. I was living in a hippie 
community and we didn't ... we called 
them something else. But if they were hippie 
spades that we liked and associated with, we 
called them Spades. So it was not a 
derogatory term. What is the best term? 
GENE: Black! 
BO: Black? 
GENE: Black people! 

BO: Yeah, but there are Negroes that aren't 
black. That's the term most acceptable now? 
GENE: You see Black is a political concept. 
Of course there are Black people who are not 
black physically, I suppose that's what you're 
making reference to, but Blackness is a 
political concept. The whole thing of Black 
Power is not necessarily Black people— it IS 
Black people reacting with each other— but 
it's a political concept. Like they call some 
people Liberal Democrats and some 
Conservative Democrats ... so basically, 
like Carmichael says, there are Black people 
and there are Negroes, and Negroes, tend to 
reflect the same values as the white society. 
But I think in this revolution, in a way, we're 
all Black people . . . although I think Negro 
would indicate that their political concepts 
and the actions they would use would more 
nearly reflect those of the organized society. 
BO: OK, well having established that . . . 
why did BLACK students here think it 
necessary to form the Afro-American 

GENE: Because there finally got to be enough 
Black students at FPC to feel that Black 
students had to establish an identity of their 
own. I was here a semester before there was 
an Afro-American Society and I don't think 
there was any Black identity. At FPC we talk 
so much about assimilation— not assimilation, 
to use that term, but we call ourselves a 

A tO 

community and we say that students come 
from different kinds of backgrounds and we 
commune with them . . . With the Black 
students who came before, the big emphasis 
was to forget that they were Black. The only 
difference between Black people and White 
people was the color of their skin. And we all 
know that's just not true. It's true that your 
environment plus maybe some hereditary 

factors are the sum total of your existence. 

Merely by Blacks being colonized in this 

country for two hundred or more years has 

made us a different kind of people. 

BO: Well, your environment hasn't been at all 

like ours. 

GENE: But when Blacks come to Florida 

Presbyterian the emphasis is on the individual. 

We forgot that the Blacks here are part of a 

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deprived group in society, and for all practical 
purposes the college still looks on the Black 
student in 1970 in the same manner it looked 
at the Black students in 1963 or '64 when the 
first Black came, as just any other student. We 
say that we're going to forget that he's Black, 
and he's going to be white, which denies the 
Black student his education, because it gives 
him a strictly academic education, whereas 

the college teaches white kids here to 
comprehend a lot of other situations. 
BO: Don't you think they're missing the boat 
in OUR education in the same way. 
GENE: Well, they're missing the boat period. 
At FPC you get a good academic education. 
When I graduate with my degree in 
management, I'M probably have 
something . . . I'm not gonna be sure what it 

is. I'll have a lot of exposure in a lot of 
different areas, such that I could probably go 
and be an effective manager . . . that is, if I 
was WHITE I could probably go and be an 
effective manager. But they forgot the fact 
that I will have to leave FPC. I'm here in this 
den of liberalism, but when I leave FPC I'm 
going back out to the big bad world, and the 
crackers out there are going to get me. 
They're going to be out to get me because I 
represent something different to them . . . 
So, is FPC going to educate me to face that, 
to know that in my whole lifetime I'm not 
going to earn as much money as some white 
person who doesn't have the education that I 
will have. Are they going to educate me to 
educate my kids, they're born with certain 
strikes against them mainly because they're 
Black. How do I cope with those kinds of 
problems? The college thinks about none of 
that . . . 

We ought to talk about the real world here 
at FPC. We have open dorms, and say that 
people who are over twenty-one can drink, 
and put a lot of responsibility in the hands of 
the students. All this is saying that we want 
Florida Presbyterian, more so than other 
schools, to reflect the real world. And for me 
it doesn't . . . 

BO: Do you think they can achieve this by 
adding units to the Core program. Do they 
have to have a "Black Studies program" or 
can they do it some other way? 
GEIME: Well, we have a lot of people here 
who think in a very academic, philosophic 
way, you know, and they all say that they're 
liberal, which I doubt, and they probably 
HAVE thought about the white man's 
burden, FPC 1970-"to educate those poor 
black savages," but I don't think they've 
really THOUGHT about us. We can't really 
decide what we're going to put in the Core 
program or what we're going to put in 
American history here at FPC until we decide 
who FPC is to educate. And it looks like now 
that FPC is educating the upper crust of the 
white world, maybe not the economic upper 
crust, but the academic upper crust. They 
have never thought about it, they've never 
HAD to think about it until recently because 
there haven't been that many Black students 
here. But now they have to think about what 
they're going to do to educate the Black 
student, if they're going to educate them at 
all. If the college isn't going to educate us, 
then I say they should stop admitting us. 

BO: Do you think you've had any success in 

making FPC think about it this year? 
GENE: If anything, I think I may have made 
the people in the administration think that 
Eugene Lewis is a rabblerouser . . . No, I 
don't think they've thought about it. I think 
if I could analyze the administrative position, 
I would say that the administration might 
really believe, in their own way, that 
everybody is equal, and that there should be 
equality for equals. And, really, for Black 
students to come to them and say we want a 
Black Studies program or we want you to 
have a special Black admissions program, 
where you go out and spend a lot of money 
on bringing Black students here. They look at 
that and say; "We don't do that for white 
kids. Why should we be doing it for these 
niggers?" They say "We've got to be 
equal." . . . That's a good theory; that's 
equality for equals, like for like. But the only 
point that they don't think about is that we 
didn't start out as equals. I consider all the 
factors that got me to Florida Presbyterian 
were a lot more work for me that it was for 
white kids. I feel that if my scores were the 
same as another, a white kid's who came to 
FPC, I worked a lot harder, period, ... to 
make that particular score. And I just say that 
they don't regard the fact that we aren't equal 
when we come here. I remember when I was 

from the students on this campus? 
GENE: I don't think there's any overt 
discrimination at Florida Presbyterian, the 
kind that we can stand up in a meeting or go 
to Dr. Wireman's office and say, "Listen, Dr. 
Wireman, I'm Black; I've been discriminated 
against." We can't say that. Because racism 
here at FPC has taken a very subtle form. 
BO: How do you feel it? I remember you 
mentioning to me once that when the Black 
issue was being discussed at house meetings, 
you knew that if you went to the house 
meeting, the issue wouldn't be discussed. 
GENE: I think that most of the white kids 
here are afraid of letting Black people know 
their background. Imagine this: if I sit in Core 
one day and I turned to the whites and said, 
"You know, you're all a bunch of 
nigger-haters," they'd all look at me and say, 
"Oh no! God no! I'm a liberal." Not a liberal, 
that's a bad word, but they'd say something 
like "I never done anything to Black people." 
But I find on most part that white kids on 
this campus hide behind that. I have had less 
than ten honest discussions about Black 
people with white people on this campus, 
because they want to talk about the Black 
person they befriended in their home or their 
maid or somebody like that, which doesn't 

won't talk to the Black one. 
GENE: That's the thing that black kids don't 
trust. When I came here every white kid 
whom I came into contact with on this 
campus was friendly, nice, cordial, like "I 
never did a thing to a nigger in my life," that 
kind of thing. I can't really relate to that. 
BO: Well, even if you try to relate to it, don't 
you find that white kids will tell you I love 
everybody, but they're actually reluctant to 
sit down and talk to you and actually form a 
friendship of any sort, a freedom of 
exchange of opinions. 

GENE: There are few white students who I 
can say our basis of relating is not that of 
race, where we can relate on issues other than 
race and where when I approach these 
students about an issue of race they are going 
to indeed think about it and not throw me 
that liberal line back. I think the majority of 
white kids are afraid, afraid of Black kids, 
physically afraid. 

BO: Do you find this also because some of 
them haven't come into any contact with 
Black kids? 

GENE: OK, agreed! And this is where the 
college comes back in. The college should be 
doing something about this, the fact that 
students don't relate to each other. I could 

relateto me, because I relate to what's here think about times, like the big thing last 


in high school they used to talk about some 
white boy who was very smart ... His 
father had his PhD. before he was born, or 
right after. So this kid was raised by Dr. 
Spock and all of those books, and he was 
RAISED on books. If the kid hadn't been 
smart, I would have thought he was retarded 
or something. That's not the case for the 
majority of Black people. That's just not the 
case. We AREN'T raised on books. So I figure 
that when a Black kid does real well in high 
school, he's evidently doing a whole lot. I 
think that FPC should look at some of these 
factors, the fact that we don't come here as 
equals, that you can't treat us as equals of 
white kids. 
BO: Have you experienced real discrimination 

and now. No one ever called me a nigger since 
I've been here, but I hear from white kids that 
white kids who are supposed to be very 
liberal, call me nigger behind my back. But 
you know I don't care about that. —For all 
practical purposes Blacks on this campus 
don't communicate with anybody but other 

BO: Don't you think that whites are afraid to 
associate with Blacks, that there's something 
holding them back from being as friendly and 
open to a Black person as they are to a white 
person, something from way back, something 
that is prejudice but is not overt prejudice, 
but yet if they meet two strangers and one of 
them is white and one of them is Black, 
they'll go talk to the white one but they 

January where the dance was closed. They 
closed it because of the Black people. The 
Black people coming out here were getting 
out of hand. So we're going to close the 
campus up. If we were to look, we'd find that 
the biggest reason that the campus is closed 
up is because the white people on this campus 
are afraid of Black people. The whites who 
come out to our campus mix more readily 
than the Blacks. They disappear, they're 
white, you can't separate them. They 
integrate much more easily into the other 
white students on this campus . . .So things 
happen like the little white girls on this 
campus talk about Blacks assaulting 
them-harrassing, that's the word. They 
always get harassed. Well, you know, really. 

what they call harrassing is simply that they 
don't know how to relate to Black people. 
When I look at my house, and I say that my 
room mate, (who is Black) and I live in Ibsen 
23, we don't live in the house, because for all 
practical purposes we don't relate to members 
of the house ... I shouldn't say that we 
don't relate to them, because we probably 
could relate to them, but members of the 
house don't relate to us ... We can stand 
and talk, but I'd say ninety per cent of the 
questions white kids ask me in the dorm are 
academic questions, questions about the 
classroom, or questions about Black people. 
Recently, since I'm director of SOB, I get 
questions about social things. But as far as 
just general kinds of things, I'd say I can't talk 
to the majority of kids in my dorm. If I 
wanted to just go into somebody's room and 
have a bull session, just go in and talk about 
anything that might be before us, just jive 
around, I couldn't do that, because if I came 
in and there was a group of other guys, it's be 
like I was an intruder, and it's not just in my 
dorm but I think a lot of Black kids on this 
campus express this kind of thing. 
BO: It must be terribly restrictive. I know I 
spend time in about three or four different 
rooms in my dorm. 
GENE: Like I said, we only reallv 

communicate with other Black kids! There's 
only twenty-three Black kids. There's not 
much variety for Black kids. We have to relate 
to the same twenty-three people all year 
long . . . 

BO: It must be pretty hard on the social life 
too. . . 

GENE: Sore subject! Sore and 
short. . . .[There needs to be a study done. 
We need some professionals to come in and 
study the purpose of Florida Presbyterian 
College. We could title the whole thing— 
"who is Florida Presbyterian to educate?". 
And this would take in the whole spectrum of 
the college, and part of the spectrum would 
be to decide, does Florida Presbyterian 
educate Black kids? Or is it just to educate 

white kids, a certain class of white kids. 
BO: Are you aware of the fact that there's 
strong disagreement among members of the 
faculty about what this college is and what 
it's supposed to be and supposed to be 

GENE: Yes. I think one of the bad things 
about a school like FPC is that we have so 
many people who were here before the walls 
went up and to them FPC is more than just 
the place where they go to make their living. 
And I think that for any college professor it 
should be more than that. But for a lot of 
people FPC has become like a member of the 
family. It is something that, . . . well it's a 
sacred cow. And when you criticize FPC for 
its shortcongs, it's like you're criticizing these 
people as well. Because they haven't been in 
on all this "walls going up, campus moving, 
and all that," to the new faculty FPC is 
education. Their sacred cow is education, 
whereas with some of these other people 
education and FPC have become one. It's a 
problem! It's a hassle! ... I think basically 
if we look at the whole faculty at FPC, the 
majority would term themselves as liberals, 
and not just liberals who started when they 
came to FPC, but who came from what we 
call a liberal tradition. For the most part FPC 
has been a living liberal tradition for them. 

FPC to get an education. I didn't come to 
educate white people . . . That's the 
college's job, to educate. . . . This does not 
necessarily mean I'm not going to talk about 
Black people, but that's not my purpose. My 
purpose has been to get an education, 
whereas, if I have to be more than that, which 
I think Black students on this campus and on 
a lot of other campuses are forced to be, then 
I'm doing more than get my education. In 
essence Black students on this campus are 
gradually taking a role ... of telling . . . 
our administration . . . what our needs 
are . . . But the problem is when we tell 
these people what we need. When it's not like 
what they've read in the books, they get 
twisted out of shape. They say, "How can this 
kid tell me . . . I've got seven letters behind 
my name, AB, MA, and PhD. How can this 
jiggaboo tell me? I've read the books, I went 
to Selma, I resigned my job when they 
refused to admit Black students at FPC. How 
can be tell me?" . . . 

BO: Assuming that it's possible that there are 
some sincerely concerned white students on 
this campus, what do you see as their role in 
this issue. 

GENE: I can see a white student going to the 
administration and saying, "I may have come 
to Florida Presbyterian, where my day-to-day 


Look at the people in the administration. 
Most of these people have been liberal all 
their lives, maybe, and they really thought 
they related to Black people. And so for a 
Black student— or a Black, period, to come on 
this campus and say you don't know me, 
"You don't know what I'm all about." I'm 
sorry! It's to slap that man on his face and say 
"Move over, Jehovah." . . . They who have 
gone to great pains to cleanse themselves of 
racism, to come into the valley of . . . 
cleanliness And they've read all the books. 
They could probably quote King or Gunnar 
Myrdal. . . . They suppose that they know 
what Black people are all about . . . For 
them integration is the thing . . . Whereas I 
didn't come to FPC to integrate, I came to 

dealings were essentially with white people, 
but I'm not going into a world that is 
essentially white. Prepare me, FPC, to go into 
that world. And I don't mean to give me that 
line about we give you a broad liberal arts 
education such that you can adapt to 
situations. This is a real situation which I 
don't know how to adapt to because I've had 
no instructions in all my life on how to adapt 
to this situation. FPC you teach me to 
approach all problems. It's your job to give 
me instructions." If white kids would say 
that ... we would have a program that 
could do that sort of thing. Somebody has to 
take the initiative to teach the Black students 
how to relate to white students, and white 
students how to relate to Black students. FPC 

should do this. Right now we're moving to 
the point where we have two very distinct 
groups on campus, the white kids and the 
Black kids. In fact, I think we are there now, 
and it's solidifying. We're going to have to 
move away from that. And we can't move 
away from that by putting all the blame on 
the Black kids. I've heard the line that the 
Black kids eat together in the cafeteria 
because they're showing their identity. . . . 
You know, the "Black is beautiful" sort of 
thing. Black kids on this campus eat together 
because they don't want to be bothered with 
white kids. They want to be able to sit down 
at a table and be able to discuss something 
other than race or what was done in the last 
class. We're not up for that all the time. You 

want to relax and be with someone who 
understands you to the point that you can 
say exactly what you want, in the exact 
tongue you want, where you don't have to 
think of the proper way to say it . . . where 
you say it exactly the way you want without 
someone looking around and saying "oh 
goodness, I don't understand that. Repeat it 
again." It's just the fact that there's no basis 
of relating between Blacks and Whites in the 
cafeteria ... I once heard in a lecture 
something about some famous American 
saying, "I can do business with anybody, but 
I'm very particular about the person whom I 
sail with, because that's me." . . . What 
about the development of self? That's what 
Blacks don't get here. We sit at the table and 

we discuss things which are just nonsense 
sometimes. . . I think when you eat you 
don't want to think about the pressing 
problems. You want to look at things from a 
very relaxed standpoint . . . There is just 
this huge problem of relating, 
communicating . . . 

BO: Do you think this school has made an 
honest effort to recruit a large number of 
Black students next year? 
GENE: No. 

BO: Do you have any idea what the number 
of Black students is likely to be? 
GENE: No more than this year. 
BO: No more? 

GENE: I would say that next year we'll 
probably start off with . . . perhaps thirty. 
Perhaps, I doubt that many. 
BO: Can you get any indication of why? Are 
they really not trying to recruit any more 

GENE: Well, I think the big point is that the 
admissions people, probably not through any 
direct failure of their own, are not able to 
recruit Black students. I was looking at that 
report that was sent in to the Civil Rights 
Dept. about FPC's compliance with the Civil 
Rights Laws. And I was somewhat appalled 
by the fact that of all of the black schools 
that the admissions counselors have visited 
this year, that I visited more than half of 
them while doing my Winter Term project. 
And it was even more appalling that the 
admissions counselors had visited not 
predominantly black high schools in Florida. 
And where's FPC located? In Florida! . . . 
Right here in dear old St. Petersburg. I was 
appalled by that . . . The priorities in the 
admissions office are such that they don't 
visit Black schools because the likelihood of 
them going to Black schools and enticing 
Black kids here to FPC are less likely than 
enticing white kids from white high schools. 
So I think the motive is that they'll go to the 
place where they can get the most students to 
come here. . . . They have to get three 
hundred and fifty students ... To bring 
more Black students here a pattern has to be 
established and that's not going to be done. 
Besides the college isn't doing anything to 
help the Black student, once he gets here, to 
adapt to a predominantly white culture . . . 
Blacks come into a white culture and are 
expected to relate to that culture . . . The 
Black students on this campus have pressed 
the admissions people about hiring a Black 
counselor, but I don't think they are 

interested. In fact, I don't think the college 
has the Black student in mind, really. 
BO: Sometimes I wonder if they have the 
student in mind at all, because we find that 
when the white student is making demands 
that we want our education to be such and 
such, we're usually ignored, too. 
GENE: I'm beginning to believe more and 
more that the only thing that FPC is going to 
react to is an abrasive action. I mean an action 
that's never happened before on this campus 
and I'm not alluding to students taking over 
buildings or anything like that because that 
wouldn't be effective on this campus . . . 
Some action is going to have to come from 
students, and I think it'll probably come from 
Black students before white students, because 
at this point white students are not in as grave 
a danger as black students are. I think there's 
going to have to be some action to make 
people see that FPC can be damaged ... I 
can see what you said about the 
administration not thinking about white 
students. It's all FPC, and FPC to them is this 
big educational experiment. In a way they do 
forget the students. They forget the fact 
that, in all this experimentation, we're only 
going to be here four years. FPC's not our 
lives. It's only a section of our lives, four 
years, then we become alumnae, we are no 
longer in the actual working of the college. To 
me these four years are probably the most 
important four years of my life. I think some 
abrasive action is going to have to come. The 
students are gonna have to say, "Look I'm 
still here. I'm only going to be here four 
years, but I'm paying three thousand dollars 
for each of those years." Joyce Miller wrote a 
letter, and in her letter she was really saying, 
"I should sue FPC for breach of promise 
because they haven't done a thing for me 
other than in a purely academic way, and in 
the catalog and in our philosophy we say 
something different. And I should sue you for 
breach of promise and tell you to give some 
of my ten thousand dollars back. Give it back 
to me! . . . You haven't done what you 
promised, so give me my money back." . . . 
I remember last year at the convocation 
Trustee Sheen said we were beginning a new 
decade at FPC and we are indeed beginning a 
new decade. . . I think for the first ten years 
students were content to let the FPC 
experiment continue undisturbed, because 
basically it was a good thing. It wasn't to the 
point where students were being harmed. But 
I think now we might be harmed a bit. I've 

heard things on this campus about how many 
emotional problems there are among the 
students, and I think I observe that the 
students are probably more unstable here at 
FPC than we find at most places. And I don't 
see anyone doing anything about it! The 
people seem to just be waiting, lying in wait 
for the big thing to happen, like we've had a 
few drug busts and all this stuff and yet 
nobody's done anything about the drug 
problem on campus. Nobody's doing 
anything. Instead we just let it lie. I think the 
big awakening thing is coming to FPC. I don't 
think the point has come yet where FPC is 
either going to come around . . .like they 
say in the ghetto to the white people, "You're 
going to come around or we're going to burn 

this place down." —I mean we're gradually 
approaching the point where Black 
students— or maybe white students,— or 
maybe students period are going to say, 
"FPC, you are going to give me a relevant 
education, you are going to prepare me to 
meet the world, or there is going to be no 
FPC." That's coming! I really think the point 
is coming when students will say, "We're 
going to pack up, we're going to get it right or 
the college is going to have to fold for 
me." ... I think most of FPC we need. But 
there is more, there's always more, to be 
done. It seems like the college may have 
started making me a round person before they 
made me a person. They try to round out the 
edges before they ever get to the middle. 

They never got to the middle of me. They 
never found out what was there. We're trying 
to make me a philosophical person, we start a 
semester abroad program, a finishing school in 
London. What about the fact that I'm going 
to finish in London but I'm going to live in 
America. What's going to happen when I leave 
here? ... I know one girl who graduated 
from FPC and she had this great FPC 
education, and she went to Boston and she 
couldn't get a job. She couldn't be nothing 
but a secretary. She has paid nearly three 
thousand dollars a year over a four year 
period to get a unique FPC education and 
now she's a secretary. You can be a secretary 
without going to a year of college. What has 
FPC done for her? She questions that now. 
And Black students; you look at the great 
Red Singletary who left here a couple of years 
ago. He went away and ... he sent poems 
back to be read at the Black Symposium last 
year, and the people were shocked because 
Red had gone out and he had rebuked FPC. 
His big words were, "FPC. Why, FPC, are you 
out of touch with reality?" And people 
couldn't understand it. What? Red Singletary, 
the perfect black student-or the perfect 
student, maybe, and Red comes down on 
FPC ... As FPC gets more Black students 
this reaction is going to become more 

BO: Do you think that there is anything 
significant the student association can do to 
relieve the social problems of the Black 
students here? Realizing, of course, that it can 
be relieved best by having more Black 
students. But we can't do that. 
GENE: We won't do that. 
BO: But I think-the students haven't yet 
realized their potential power. 
GENE: That's the point. I think the biggest 
thing the SA could do it ... to make white 
kids begin to think. On this campus, I am 
amazed at times by the pure academic 
thought, classroom thought, of white kids. 
But they don't think outside the classroom. I 
think most FPC students are behind if we 
relate them to some kids at traditional 
colleges, concerning political thinking about 
the outside world. We come to FPC and we 
become an exclusive community, highly 
intellectual, and look upon the people in St. 
Petersburg as being something from Mars. But 
that's the world out there. St. Petersburg is 
the world we're going to have to go back and 
live in when we leave here. We're only going 
to be here four years. But we don't relate to 
them. Until we start relating to those people 
in St. Petersburg, what have we got? It's 
unreal. It's an academic world ... I can't be 
getting my BA for the next sixty years. I can't 

increased their efforts to contact black 
students in all the high schools they have 
visited. We believe that our own black 
students can do the most effective job of 
interpreting the college to prospective black 
students and, for that reason, we have 
increasingly sent some of our own black 
students into predominantly black high 
schools. This process began last spring with a 
swing through Florida black high schools and 
continued this year with a fall trip to Atlanta 
and Gene Lewis' Winter Term travels for 
Admissions which took him as far north as 
Virginia. Last year 26 black students enrolled 
in the college, 11 for the first time. As of 
April 7, 32 black students had applied for 
Admission in the fall of 1970. 

2. What, if any, plans have been made for a 
Black Studies Program next year? 

In the fall President Wireman appointed a 
Black Studies Committee to look into this 
matter. The committee has met and has sent 
its report to the Academic Affairs Committee, 
which will in turn transmit the report, with 
possible amendments, to the College 
Assembly. The report of the Black Studies is 
in process of coming into existence, and 

» 0J. . _„• i.. l :_ „,4. .„-,+;«., rprnmmpnrte that the colleae DOt Seek tO 

apparent. And as FPC gets more white 
students who, indeed did not come to FPC 
for a "finishing" education, but came to FPC 
because they thought it was a gem in the 
educational world, they're going to be saying 
and writing back the same kind of things. 
With me it's got to come before I leave here. I 
do plan to graduate, and I do plan for my 
degree to be relevant. When I graduate it's 
going to be relevant degree. I refuse to just 
hang it up and say forget it. I refuse to do 
that. I'm going to say FPC "You owe me 
something, you invited me to become a 
student here. You chose me and I chose you, 
it's like a marriage, and it's going to be a long 
time before we get a divorce." I think that's 
the thing. 

be getting a purely academic education, 
can't live here at FPC. It's not Walden II. 
Questions: Linda Jennings 
Answers: John Jacobson, Dean of the College 

1. Has the Admissions Office made an effort 
to recruit a larger number of black students 
for next year? 

The Admissions Office is making an effort 
to recruit a larger number of students. In the 
fall of 1970 we hope to have 350 freshmen; 
we had 280 freshmen in the fall of 1969. The 
Admissions Office is intensifying its efforts to 
recruit black students. Our Admissions 
Counsellors have visited more and more 
predominantly black high schools and have 

recommends that the college not seek to 
establish a distinct Black Studies major or 
Black Studies program in the foreseeable 
future. At the same time, the report 
emphasizes that there are a variety of topics 
relating to the experience and history of black 
Americans and to Sub-Saharan Africa that 
should be brought into the curriculum as new 
courses or as new elements of existing 
courses. In particular, the committee 
recommends that consideration be give to 
devoting a unit of Core 101 and a unit of 
Core 201 to Black Americans and that one of 
the options in the second semester of Junior 
Core should be a course on Sub-Saharan 
Africa. Finally, the report notes that "One of 
the most valuable learning experiences for all 

students, black and white, will be learning to 
live together and talk together, respecting 
differences, and in creative tension." A 
renewed effort is required: an effort to talk 
together, to understand, to be patient with 
what we don't understand and to create on 
our campus a genuine biracial community. 

3. What do you see as FPC's future policy 
toward Black Studies and black students? 

Our policy toward Black Studies will be to 
incorporate material relating to blacks and to 
Africa into existing elements of the academic 
program. As I indicated earlier, the Black 
Studies Committee recommended against the 
establishment of a separate Black Studies 
major or Black Studies program. 

The policy of the college toward black 
students will be the same as its policy toward 
all students. The main reason that any 
students comes to FPC is to get a superior 
liberal education. This is what we offer and 
this offer is sufficient to attract a considerable 
number of students, black and white. 

Like most colleges, we have considered 
setting up special academic and counselling 
programs for black students. Our present 

thinking is, however, that the black students 
that we want to attract do not need and 
would not benefit from participation in a 
program that would set them apart from 
other students. 

FPC needs to attract, keep, and graduate an 
increasing number of promising black 
students. This is an effort to which every 
segment of the community can make its 
contribution: the Admissions Office by 
skillful recruitment, the faculty by relating to 
black students in a loving but at the same 
time thoroughly professional and 
straightforward manner, the students by 
fostering a spirit of friendliness and mutual 


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,. JPpr\4~ 

Yesterday Became a Foster Child 

I usually regard it 
with tolerant humor 

very much like children 

although my step- father 
was a street jockey drunk 

when he was twenty or so 

he would go down to the 

corner street bars 

and sit mindlessly in the 

corners of countless 
whisky and wine bottles 
from friday to monday 

on weeks 

and beat up on mother the 
rest of the month . . . 

mon and i grew bored with it 
and we left him to drown in 
those mindless corners that 
he said, "assuaged the afflictions 

of his reality." 

Randolph Singleton 

give it to gillot 

s. beckett 

4*r , ■-, Jm: ■• 

A«t9Ufli?i0> ; ^#}M& 

so you're the kind of vegetarian that only eats roses; 
is that what you mean with your beautiful losers? 

1. cohen 

Do you think my hand could do a cartwheel? If 
he fingers fell off and wrapped around a chicken 
Irumstick and if you stirred in a little cyclomate, a 
linch of concrete, and a cup of melted 
onversation, it might just be possible, but 
leavens! . . . such temerity certainly would be 
oppressed by the god of wood and alphabets, 
vould be banished forever to the land of drunk 
ish. Anyway the streetlights (yes I know) would 
tand on their heads and spit gloves, gloves?, 
:urtains?, wait that's not right, no, it's, well, what I 
aw (saw?) was, but no, what's above is related to 
omething else, and if everything would just keep 
till — now stop I want to get this straight. If 
rou're keen you can see the radio tower climb so 
ligh that your feet melt into the grass and 
lirplanes play Beatle music, lounge chairs talk to 

buses oblivious to the watery sounds above. 
And further on, I bet you didn't know that it is 
possible to subtract ink from noisy haystacks and 
you can see balloons carrying thousands of facts 
and cold air and relationships, and truths, and 
symphonies over to a processing area where they 
produce hand made rehearsals of the most 
exquisite quality. Now if all posters and mailboxes 
only would cooperate and burn down all roofs, 
such nonsense could be immediately halted. But 
only pigeons see any rationality behind society and 
only solidified sociologists see that you just can't 
bend ideas into well-ordered and functional 
quanta. Washing machines still float on oceans of 
transparent deserts and walls stand always in 
straight lines unable to populate the universities 
because they just don't have the power, it's so sad, 
to be more than they can imagine. Why must there 
be such problems for mankind? So the only hope I 
see out of this mess is to get a huge lever and tilt 
the whole interstate highway system so that all the 
wine bottles, matches, trees, cows, pillows, steaks, 
glasses, governments, beaches, towels, napkins, IQs, 
directions, joys, victories, sadnesses, coins, ruins, 
city-states, elephants, blue houses, Black militants, 
strangers, communists, farmers, salesmen, 
engineers, salt and pepper shakers, and the candles 
just slid and all went rolling, crashing, falling, 
sliding, slipping, and toppling off the edge, then, 
then things would be really different and . . .and 
then ... oh boy! then my hand could do a 

Walter Pharr 

"Did you hear what Paul said?' David asked 
me. " 'This is us in fifteen years.' but there 
won't be anyone to clean us up, or any way 
to do it." Maybe no reason to clean us up, 
either, but that was felt and did not need to 
be said. 

Straight off, "It will work best to pour oil 
on his back," Dr. Reed said, "mineral oil is 
the best, but any vegetable oil works fine, and 
just rub this in very well, under the wings, 
around the legs, and where they attach to his 
body, and the head." Vaseline for his eyes; 
this cannot be done too delicately. Be 
confident, and calm, also, for the bird will 
sense your calm, or panic, and he will 
respond. All around, silly people really 
worked hard, but did more harm than good 
by frightening their birds more than was 
necessary. I talked to my loons, and they 
really did seem to take comfort in these small 

When the feathers have come to a state of 
semi-saturation from vegetable oil then some 
kind of abrasive material should be worked in 
to absorb the oil and petroleum. Try to find 
something not too abrasive, corn meal is 
good, but the very best was a fine powdery 

corn starch. It has to be dusted on and into 
every crevice, and then try to brush it out 
again. The results of this process are amazing, 
and working at first with David and Heidi 
filled me with hope for a hopeless situation. 
The key of David's technique was 
thoroughness. The sections that I did he 
would always do over again, and they came 
out more clean. The further we went the 
more proud David was. 

The loons almost always went beserk at 
being washed. The water should be warm but 
not too. Just a bit above our body 
temperature is right. Two people must work 
with a loon and maybe a third to facilitate 
getting clean water. The birds are susceptible 
to chill between baths and they also become 
hypernervous. The only thing to do is 
continue and remember that it is the only 
way they have a chance to live. Hold one 
hand on the bird's back always, never leave 
him alone. Your hand is warm, and if you are 
calm, it will have a calming effect upon the 

With care, detergent must be worked into 
the areas around the bill and eye, and the rest 
of the head. Many left birds with unclean 
heads. They would not attempt to clean 
them. The first loon I worked with got a film 
of detergent over his nostrils, and began to 
blow bubbles. Then the film formed over his 
eye lid. The loon frantically moved the clear 
window cover back and forth to clean out the 
soap, and tears came in his eyes. I saw a cup 
someone had tossed aside, and I immediately 
ran to get it full of clean water. With this I 
irrigated his nostril area and eyes. This proved 
to be an excellent idea, and so I always kept a 
cup of clean water with me to wash the poor 
birds' eyes with. I also irrigated the birds' eyes 
that were around me. At the beginning of 
each new rinse, the bird's head should be 
coaxed under water, and this will rinse it off. 
They will cooperate with this readily. At this 
point I wondered if my bird could breathe 
efficiently, and so I decided to take off the 
rubber band that was binding his bill together. 
This worked fine. It will make the bird 
naturally feel more secure and more at ease. 
You hold his neck, and if he can't spear you 
well he will not be able to bite you. One 

warning that shouldn't be forgotten: loons are 
capable of flashes of moving their necks, and 
so always keep your eyes more than the bird's 
neck away. 

After being washed with soap and water, 
the bird has to be dried thoroughly. Then 
more oil can be worked into his feathers, and 
the process over again. Sometimes when I had 
to work alone I would use both hands to 
clean feathers and not hold the bird's head. I 
kept talking to the bird, and he remained 
calm. So many people were afraid of the 
vicious loons, but they will become docile if 
handled with confidence. The nostrils of the 
birds have to be cleaned with Q-tips. This 
helps their breathing. And if it is available an 
eyedropper or syringe should be used to inject 
the water like sneezing, and that is also good 
for removing some of the tars that clog his 
nostrils. I got an extra person to hold the 
bird's body, and one person to hold the head, 
and I opened the loon's beak. It seemed 
impossible at first . . . The bird is frantic 
and his sudden flinches cannot be stopped. It 
worked for me to let the bird bite down'on 
my thumb and thumb nail while the inside of 
his mouth was swabbed out. This way worked 
best, and really doesn't hurt very much. 

With all the different sea-birds that were 
being worked on I wanted to clean the loons 
rather than the small ducks and mud hens. 
The loons are much more challenging, and 
many other people were afraid of them, 
although it was impossible to clean a loon. 

People really worked together incredibly. 
McDonald's fed us. Stranger "Here, have a 
bite," and thrust a doughnut in my mouth. 
Later coffee brought round. Many came to 
look, take pictures, and bring home ducks. 
Many came just to have been there. This 
really made me feel bad. I came to help the 
poor creatures. I also came to alleviate my 
own conscience. It was fun to get really all the 
way filthy. The filthier I got, the more I felt I 
had accomplished. This is bad, worrying 
about impressions, images. The loons did not 
care who took them by what they looked 
like. I felt though it was much more 
important to do one really thoroughly than 
maybe ten mediocre. We did three. That is a 
pretty good day's worth. 

Will Crocker 

Contacting My Senator about Ecological Threats to Survival 

I wrote him a post card, 

but by the time it got to Washington, it had 

traveled through so much smog 

that the letters were covered with grime, 

and he couldn't read it. 

So I wrote a letter and sent it by a friend, 

but — unfortunately — she drank some polluted water, 

and died on the way. 

So I wrote another, and gave it to a farmer 

to take with him when he went to protest 

the meager raise of his payment 

for fallow land. 

But he ate an apple sprayed with 

Super Bug Kill XXZ8, was poisoned, 

and lay in the Geno Side Hospital for two and a half weeks. 

In desperation, I called him up, over Ball 

Telephones, that Elevated Establishment 

responsible for spiking the landscape with polls. 

Final tally: 92% for, 8% against; 

the minority was cut down. They were not 

social pillars. Just 

oxygen-giving trees. 

But when he answered, I was seized by a fit 

of coughing. Industrial Waste 

was caught in my throat. 

"I've got it! I've got it!" I managed to croak 

before my senator 


hung up, smoking a Tastes Good while he 

lynched the country by casting 

his vote 

against Clean Air. 

Death didn't bother me, but I hated like hell 
to be put in that polluted, rank earth. 

Sherry Coogle 




Perhaps the most pointed analysis of the 
relationships between rock music and the 
socio-political realm of contemporary life can 
be found in Plato: "forms and rhythms in 
music are never changed without producing 
changes in the most important political forms 
and ways;" and indeed, the only art form that 
has accurately reflected the cultural 
revolution of the past decade has been rock 
music. But this role as the vanguard of revolt 
has generated in rock a self-consciousness that 
has sorely limited its ability to transcend the 
boundaries of counter-cultural nationalism 
and express relevant, universal truths that 
stand independent of popular cultural and 
political conflicts. The majority of its artists 
have abused rock music's inherent eclecticism 
and instead of assuming a truly revolutionary 
role by speaking of and to static forces of the 
old in a voice that is both new and exciting, 
they have opted for a soaring, detached 
idealism that has left that great segment of 
society that controls, and is in dire need of, 
change unimpressed. This is not to say that 
rock music's own community grow weary of 
suffering its shrill and philistine tone, a radical 
change is necessary and forthcoming. As 
Jaime Robbie Robertson of The Band has put 
it: "now people are saying, let's hear the 
truth; we haven't heard it for a long, long 

The Band, whose music has been variously 
classified as "country rock" (Time), "pop 
nostalgia" (Richard Goldstein), and 
"American truth" (Ralph J. Gleason), is the 
most recently emerged, and potentially the 
most important major rock and roll group 
performing today. The Band's first album, 
Music from Big Pink (Capitol, SKAO 2955), 
was aimed directly at breaking the deafening 
grip held on rock by the psychedelicized San 
Francisco sound. "We could have done an 
album anytime," sayd Robertson, "it was a 
planned statement." The basic source for the 
nature and direction of Big Pink is Dylan: the 
taut, Blakeian irony of "In a Station," the 
apocolyptic vision of "To Kingdom Come," 
and the surrealism of "Chest Fever" all reflect 
the tone and texture of the pre-Nashville 
Skyline Bob Dyland. But the greater part of 
Big Pink is caored by the singular qualities of 
The Band: the undeniably American tone, the 
rural/bibl/cal/traditional images, the 
sympathy for sentiments and values that have 
paled before the opulence of a culturally 
revolting America. Big Pink is a search for 
balance, for a style and expression that 
marries The Band's two worlds of experience: 
the ten year they spent maturing the dives 
and honkeytonks of the American south 
(playing places where "you had to puke twice 

and show you razor to get in"), and the two 
years they traveled with Dylan in the U. S., 
England, and Europe on a grand tour that 
revolutionized rock music be creating 
folk-rock. Neither world can be denied, and in 
Big Pink The Band seeks a way of molding the 
revolution of electric music around an 
experimental core of traditional, rural 

Pulling that eternal plough: 
We've got to find a sharper blade. 
Or have a new one made. 

("We can Talk") 

The Band opted for making a completely 
"new blade," and what was hinted at in Big 
Pink was more than fulfilled in their second 
album. The Band (Capitol, STAO 132). 

It would not be a useless generalization to 
say the The Band is the most mature work 
produced in rock and roll to date, for if there 
is anything that rock lacks it is maturity. The 
quality and originality of the vocals, 
instrumentation, and lyrics in The Band 
produce a depth that illustrates what someone 
once termed the "art of density." The first 
time you play the album you are caught by 
"The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down," or 
"Up on Cripple Creek," or "Rocking Chair," 
but in subsequent playings these songs seem 
obvious as the subtle geniur of the rest of the 
album slowly begins to surface. The Band 
does not depend on a particular sensibility or 
sensitivity for its success, but rather it creates 
sensitivities, paints over them with new ones, 
and then revives them in altered and 
expanded forms. Focus shifts from general to 
particular and back to general, much like the 
viewing of a Bruegel painting. 

The Band does what rock music is best 
suited for— it takes large moods and emotions, 
distills them, functioning like Eliot's 
,, objective correlative," evokes these 
sentiments by a particular vocal pattern or 
instrumental riff. Take a song like "The Night 
They Drove Old Dixie Down"— nothing in the 
writings of Bruce Catton or McKinley Kantor 
evokes a clear, more tangible vision of Civil 
War American than this vignette. Listening to 
the texture of the loose, soaring harmonies, 
one finds it hard to believe that this is not 
some fold tradition that has been handed 
down from the "winter of '65" to the 
present. One is reminded of a Matthew Brady 
Daguerreotype by the grainy dissonance of 
the chorus in "Dixie"— a delicate interrelation 
between music and lyric that is the special 
mark of The Band. It is a balance between 
form and content that is found everywhere in 
The Band: 

In the near falsetto vocal of Richard 
Manuel in "Whispering Pines" that chills the 
ear much as the lyrics freeze the spine: 



In the crunchy drums and droning 
clavinette in "Up on Cripple Creek" that 
produces a rolling backgrouns for the images 
of truck-driving through the American south: 

In the driving piano that matches the 
raciness of "Jemima Surrender;" 

In the mandolin of "Rockin' Chair" that 
serves not only to underscore the weariness of 
"pushing age. seventy-three," but also adds a 
tiny sparkle apropos to a song about an aging 
seaman. In every case, The Band's music is 
meticulously conceived and executed, and 
seldom is there an effect or sound used that 
does not in some way complement the 
sentiment attempted by the song. The 
superfluous note is rare in The Band. 

But the singular, driving force behind The 
Band, the quality that has made them the 
Band is their sympathetic preoccupation with 
life on the land; with the massive, incumbent 
America that lies between the decay of New 
York and the opulence of California. This is 
the America that made them, the one they 
know best, the one that has marked them 
forever as an anachronism. When they stepped 
out to play before the multitudes at 
Woodstock, they could have just as well been 
playing to a beer-soaked bar audience in 
Beaumont, Texas. It is all there in "King 
Harvest (Has Surely Come)" as The Band 
speaks almost too knowingly of a life-style 
that lives unnoticed in the sprawl of an urban, 
culturally-oriented America. Robertson rattles 
his guitar as Helm and Danko sing: 

Corn in the fields 

Listen to the rice as the wind blows cross 
the water 

King Harvest has surely come 

There is a smirking irony in "King Harvest" 
that transcends mere nostalgia and sentiment 
and becomes one of the "American truths" of 
which Ralph J. Gleason speaks: 

You know, I'm glad to pay those union dues 
Just don't judge me by my shoes 

"King Harvest" closes The Band at a level of 
mature understanding and musical finesse that 
marks the pinnacle of The Band's 
achievement to date. But perhaps it is the end 
of "King Harvest" itself that is the zenith of 
their work, and a true reflection of all that 
has gone before. Robbie Robertson plays a 
haunting, bittersweet lead quitar line that 
rises from his instrument as lean and sparse as 
the land of which it speaks— cutting through 
the decay of the existing urban culture and 
the empty rhetoric of the cultural revolution 
to a vision that is lost, forgotten and sorely 

Corn in the fields 

Listen to the rice as the wind blows cross the water 

King Harvest has surely come 

But when twenty brown dipped breasts 

pressed against his flannel chest 

it was hardly one of those valiant escapes 

in the sloop without sails 

the deck sans rails 

his battered teeth biting his own neck 

But with the chastity strap 

slicing his larynx, 

he requested that they strip him from the sidewalk 

and spread him on the boiling bed 

where he flipped from stomach to stomach (the teeth) 

But after shoving the ship over miles of shallows 

toward the abortive assassination, 

he stuck the scraper behind his ear 

and presented his lesser intestines to the pistol. 

But after receiving there slugs in the groin 
and one in the greater intestine, 
he found it distressing to digest 
the new psychological situation. 

And so with explicit prescriptions 

and a note from the doctor, 

he boarded the shortholiday plane 

to the sunbeach capital of the world 

where he dreampt 

about sloops without sails 

and decks sans rails 

and the assassinated aborted abortion. 

And also when he convinced himself 

that he had surely lost control 

of the power 

in the tiny channels 

which seemed to be collapsing, 

and could no longer navigate 

inside his cerebrum 

Well then he began to befriend 
the gunman who seemed to enjoy 
shooting him so. 

Jon Gillespie 

mate toad criticism: 
>ond to (criticize) 

h the creation of more 

timatetoadcriticism prompts a sort of 

suggesting that inspiration for art could/should come from 
er art works, that the world created by one artist through 
work could be sued as the subject of another's criticism 

speaks for itself. Were it meant to "say" more 
n it does, the artist would have stated it within 
art work. 

Criticism, therefore, can 
justly explain or restate nothing 
)ut the work of art because the work of art states 
sverything that it states itself. 

o ,,_ 

to -m 

o ® 

E § 

= 3 



ultimate (to the furthest extremity* 
toad (toad: /tod/ n., often attrib (ME tode, fr. OE tade, 
tadige) 1 . any of numerous tailless leaping amphibians 
(esp. family Bufonidae) that as compared with the 
related frogs are generally more terrestial in habit 
though returning to water to lay their eggs, squatter 
and shorter in build and with weaker hindlimbs, and 
rough, dry and warty rather than smooth and moist of 
skin 2. a contemptible person or thing 

Art is successful 

Art if successful 
if it stimulates any sort of response 
at all 
in the receiver. 
Extension of art (ultimate toad criticism) 
is the affirmation of worth 

or the nonworth worth 
of the art. 

Criticize bad art by 

1. Ignoring it 

2. Parodying it 

3. (re "The Magic Christian") Marking it sold 


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$ >S A poem demanding critics' fright 

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And hasty poets to make things right. 


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o .= « Upon whose lines the curse is lam, 
= | "Defend thyself! or be thou slain." 

£■ And I would choose, as would you, 
g Abolish the poem, no more ado. 

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even as christ found 
the unsecret to free death, we 

(village saviour) must find the key 



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